What is Diabetes ?
Diabetes is a disorder that impairs the capacity of the body to absorb blood glucose, otherwise referred to as blood sugar.
In India the number of people with diabetes has grown from 26 million in 1990 to 65 million in 2016. According to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare ‘s 2019 National Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy Survey report, the prevalence was observed to be 11.8 per cent in people above the age of 50.
Despite continuous diligent monitoring, diabetes can contribute to a accumulation in blood sugars that can raise the possibility in dangerous conditions, including stroke and heart disease.
Different forms of diabetes will arise, and the type depends on how you treat the disease. Not all types of diabetes originate from an overweight adult or living an unhealthy lifestyle. In fact, some are from childhood.
What Types Of Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar. The hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into your cells to be stored or used for energy. With diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t effectively use the insulin it does make.
Untreated high blood sugar from diabetes can damage your nerves, eyes, kidneys, and other organs.
There are a few different types of diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The immune system attacks and destroys cells in the pancreas, where insulin is made. It’s unclear what causes this attack. About 10 percent of people with diabetes have this type.
- Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body becomes resistant to insulin, and sugar builds up in your blood.
- Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar is higher than normal, but it’s not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
- Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar during pregnancy. Insulin-blocking hormones produced by the placenta cause this type of diabetes.
A rare condition called diabetes insipidus is not related to diabetes mellitus, although it has a similar name. It’s a different condition in which your kidneys remove too much fluid from your body.
Each type of diabetes has unique symptoms, causes, and treatments. Learn more about how these types differ from one another.
Form I diabetes is a disease that kills insulin generating cells in your pancreas in your immune system. This is known as beta cells. In children and young adults, a disease is usually diagnosed, so it was historically called young diabetes.
A disease called secondary diabetes is similar to Type 1, but your beta cells are washed away from your immune system by something else like an infection or a pancreatic injury.
Both of them differ from type 2 diabetes, which does not respond as the body does to insulin.
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition to restrict the use of insulin. Insulin resistance is said to exist in people with type 2 diabetes.
Middle-aged or elderly people are more likely to develop this form of diabetes. In the past it was known as diabetes for adults. However, type 2 diabetes also impacts children and teenagers, primarily due to obesity in the childhood.
The most prevalent form of diabetes is Type 2. In the US, Form 2 has approximately 29 million inhabitants. 84 millions have prediabetes, which is elevated but not necessary to produce diabetes. their blood sugar (or blood glucose) is high.
Symptoms of Diabetes :
What are the Symptoms Type 1 Diabetes :
Signs are often subtle, but they can become severe. They include:
- Extreme thirst
- Increased hunger (especially after eating)
- Dry mouth
- Upset stomach and vomiting
- Frequent urination
- Unexplained weight loss, even though you’re eating and feel hungry
- Blurry vision
- Heavy, labored breathing (your doctor may call this Kussmaul respiration)
- Frequent infections of your skin, urinary tract, or vagina
- Crankiness or mood changes
- Bedwetting in a child who’s been dry at night
Signs of an emergency with type 1 diabetes include:
- Shaking and confusion
- Rapid breathing
- Fruity smell to your breath
- Belly pain
- Loss of consciousness (rare)
What are the Symptoms Type 2 Diabetes :
Signs and Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes can be so mild that you don’t notice them. About 8 million people who have it don’t know it. Symptoms include:
- Being very thirsty
- Peeing a lot
- Blurry vision
- Being cranky
- Tingling or numbness in your hands or feet
- Fatigue/feeling worn out
- Wounds that don’t heal
- Yeast infections that keep coming back
- Feeling hungry
- Weight loss without trying
- Getting more infections
If you have dark rashes around your neck or armpits, see your doctor. These are called acanthosis nigricans, and they can be signs that your body is becoming resistant to insulin.
What are the Symptoms Type 1 Diabetes :
If you have symptoms, you might notice that:
- You’re a lot thirstier than usual.
- You pee a lot.
- Your vision is blurry.
- You’re a lot more tired than usual.
Causes of type 1 diabetes
The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. What is known is that your immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria or viruses — attacks and destroys your insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This leaves you with little or no insulin. Instead of being transported into your cells, sugar builds up in your bloodstream.
Type 1 is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, though exactly what those factors are is still unclear. Weight is not believed to be a factor in type 1 diabetes.
Causes of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes
In prediabetes — which can lead to type 2 diabetes — and in type 2 diabetes, your cells become resistant to the action of insulin, and your pancreas is unable to make enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Instead of moving into your cells where it’s needed for energy, sugar builds up in your bloodstream.
Exactly why this happens is uncertain, although it’s believed that genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes too. Being overweight is strongly linked to the development of type 2 diabetes, but not everyone with type 2 is overweight.
Causes of gestational diabetes
During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones to sustain your pregnancy. These hormones make your cells more resistant to insulin.
Normally, your pancreas responds by producing enough extra insulin to overcome this resistance. But sometimes your pancreas can’t keep up. When this happens, too little glucose gets into your cells and too much stays in your blood, resulting in gestational diabetes.
Diabetes Diet For Early morning :
- Tea or coffee (without sugar)
- Avoid biscuits
- Take nuts – pista, badam
Diabetes Diet For Breakfast :
- 1 glass milk or curd
- Stuffed roti
- Besan chilla
Diabetes Diet For Snacks
- Avoid processed food as snacks (like namkeen, biscuit, rusk, cookies etc)
- Vegetable soup
- Roasted chana
Diabetes Diet For Lunch/dinner
- Half plate steamed/boiled/sauteed vegetable or salad
- 1/4th dal or curd or paneer/chicken
- 1/4th rice or roti or oats etc.
Foods to avoid :
- Packaged foods
- Bakery products
- Maida-based products
Points to remember
- Do not blindly trust “diabetic friendly” products
- Avoid alcohol